The article analyses the Italian constitutional framework applicable to the discipline of Covid Certificates. In particular, this essay takes into account the relations between the right to health as defined by Art. 32 of the Italian Constitution, individual freedom and the constitutional principle of solidarity. In the light of the Constitution, a law could impose a Covid-19 compulsory vaccination; therefore, for various reasons the Covid Certificate can be considered as a legal burden rather than a duty.
The contribution deals with the complex topic of public agreements, highlighting critical points for reflection. In particular, the author dwells on the clauses contained in the health agreements pursuant to art. 8 quinquies of legislative decree 30 December 1992, n. 502 in which the private operator expressly renounces to challenge the measures for determining the cost and tariff limits.
The article deals with employment relationships in ideologically oriented organisations, with particular attention to religiously oriented ones. The author, taking the cue from a book of Francesco Santoni on this theme, written in 1983, points out continuity and distances in the present scholar debate and case-law. In the first part, after a description of the German experience, the article focuses upon some milestone decisions of the European Court of Human Rights and of the European Court of Justice. These rulings are actually forcing the German system to give up strong prerogatives that it has always granted to religiously oriented organisation in managing labour relations with their employees. The final part of the essay is devoted to the Italian experience, by now dominated by anti-discriminatory law, which is eliminating any peculiarities of labour law in religiously oriented organisations. In conclusion, the author proposes to strike a better balance between collective freedom of religion, enjoyed by religiously oriented organisations, and right not to be discriminated against, to which individual employees in these organisations are entitled.
This essay takes account of the draft law aimed at tightening up the punishment for crimes committed on grounds of the victim’s sexual orientation or disability. In addition, it introduces a new hate crime for these reasons, extending to the above scope the offenses concerning discrimination on ‘racial, ethnic, or religious’ grounds. As known, this draft law wasn’t approved by the Italian senate. In relation to this project, the Author critically evaluates the traditional use of the threat of penal sanctions, which ends up assuming promotional purposes of certain life choices rather than contributing to the growth of a social climate of respect towards all. It is stated that this outcome would be better achieved through restorative justice. Furthermore, the lack of determination of the draft provisions and the delicate problems of the relationship between an unspecified case of discrimination and the constitutional principle of freedom of expression are highlighted.
This essay provides an analysis of the main arguments used by the Italian Constitutional Court (decision No. 242/2019) to narrow the scope of criminal liability for medical assistance to suicide. However, recently the critical issues of this ruling have been underlined following the jurisprudential application of the requirements identified by the Court to access to the physicianassisted suicide. In parallel, the Author reviews the legislative regulation proposed in this matter to the parliamentary debate. Finally, the recent proposal for a referendum on Article 579 of the Italian criminal code is subjected to a critical examination. The possible partial repeal of this crime would be reflected in a general non-punishability of the consensual homicide: not only in the circumstances indicated by the Constitutional Court, but in all cases in which a person can express his will. Furthermore, the possible positive outcome of the referendum would produce disruptive effects, well above the criminal issues, assuming that an interpersonal relationship might be aimed at causing the death.
The contribution aims to shed light on the development of Giuseppe Dossetti’s fundamental ideas during his years of intellectual training at the Catholic University of Milan. Dossetti’s thinking during the years spent at the Catholic University has yet to be studied. This has prevented a full and deeper understanding of Dossetti’s legal-publicist path that culminated in the work of the Constituent Assembly, when he coordinated the Christian Democrat group in the First Subcommittee. In light of the unpublished sources that have been collected in the Archives of the Catholic University, the aim is to underline the importance of the thought of some young scholars and professors who, at the turn of the 1930s and 1940s, attended the Faculty of Law, including Giuseppe Dossetti, Antonio Amorth and Balladore Pallieri, and to clarify the unique and specific contribution of the school of public law at the Catholic University in the transition between the end of the fascist regime and the new democratic system.
The essay, after introducing some legal-ethical principles of contract – self-responsibility, good faith and fairness –, focuses on the relationship between good faith and fairness in terms of the integration of contracts. It gives some hints on the traditional difference between good faith and fairness, and then presents the phenomenon of contamination between good faith and fairness, which originates above all from the German model of Treu und Glauben. The result is an «equitable» good faith which finds various applications in jurisprudence. Finally, the topic is addressed in relation to the question of the regulation of typical contingencies and atypical contingencies.
[F. BENATTI] R. Pipes, Proprietà e libertà, Milano, IBL Libri, 2021 » 405 - [S. GENTILE] Napoleone e il diritto. A duecento anni dalla morte di un genio?, Milano, 5 maggio 2021 » 417 - [L. MAGANZANI] F. Procchi, Profili giuridici delle insulae a Roma antica, I, Contesto urbano, esigenze abitative ed investimenti immobiliari tra tarda repubblica ed alto impero, Torino, Giappichelli, 2020 » 423