Alla ricerca di un luogo per la laicità: il «potenziale di verità» di una democrazia liberale
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The essay is intended as a kind of meta-analysis, from a mainly criminal law perspective, of laicism and mutual tolerance principles in latemodern societies, getting beyond the formal approach to these themes, which has traditionally been focused solely on the legal guarantee of an outward respect by States and among citizens for minority faiths and beliefs. Liberal democracies, made aware of the need – stemming also, ad J. Habermas puts it, by and «aberrant modernization» – to draw upon different religious and moral beliefs in order to preserve their same normative and cultural foundations, should then bolster up the «potential for truth» of citizens and thus foster a widespread «interest in truth» rather than the idea of people sharing unique identities. A task which, in turn, requires as prerequisite equality of rights, enhancement of human capabilities and social cooperation. Such active social policy involvement even by liberal States has become more and more urgent in view of the recent drift of criminal laws towards «zero tolerance» and «enemy oriented» policies, which, besides being both the effect and a major further cause of the weakening of vital social bonds, are hardly contained solely by the liberal rule of law and rather pose a powerful threat to a credible maintenance thereof.
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