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In times of dissatisfaction and disinterest in the ideals of European integration, even among young people, we should not forget that the EU has created an area of freedom where it is possible to circulate, work and study freely. This fact has no precedent in the history of Europe, no equal in any other continent and has expanded ever more over the decades. EU citizens, especially the younger ones, should be reminded that the EU has determined the creation of a dimension of freedom in the last 60 years which is too often taken for granted. To bring people closer to the EU, it would be better to further progress in the democracy of the EU institutions, taking more effective EU social measures, adopting clear EU political choices of direct support to families.
The societas unius alicuius negotiationis, represented an organizational model well suited for the realization of the slave trade undertaken by the venaliciarii. In the imperial age, as attested by Gaius (3.148), the societas venaliciaria appears as a society whose characteristics will be peculiar to the type of negotiatio undertaken by the members, and which, also following the reflections of the jurisprudence, will be connoted according to some principles founding that will take into account both the requirements of the venaliciarii socii, and of the third party contractors, who, thanks to the confirmation of the exception to the general principle of external irrelevance of the corporate relationship towards third parties, may be protected under the edict adversus venaliciarios contained in the edict of the aediles curuli (D. 220.127.116.11). The recognition by the jurisconsults of the external relevance of the societas venaliciaria will have the effect of placing it on the same level as the other commercial companies in the preeminent public interest, such as the society of the publicani, of the argentarii and of the shipowners.
The constitution of Theodosius II (C.I. 5.17.8) strictly forbids the repudiation outside the iustae causae indicated. Compared to the previous legislation, the number of these causae has increased. Now crimes never mentioned before are indicated. These crimes, at the time of Theodosius II, have achieved greater social disvalue. Theodosius II clearly states that there can be no repudiation without notification.
The Paper deals with the Legislation of the Roman emperor Gratian concerning the Jews, and is part of a larger Investigation about the legal Condition of the Jews in Late Antiquity. The three laws, CTh. 12.1.100, CTh.12.1.99 and CTh.16.7.3, deal with the problem of the obligation of fulfillment of the curial burdens by the Jews and the possibility of contesting, within five years, the wills of those Christians who were suspected of having converted to Judaism in their life. The laws of Gratian are highly restrictive of Jewish worship freedom, even if it is not possible to say that they have been properly anti-Jewish laws. However, with this research is possible to understand how the Emperor and Christian Emperors generally acted for the preservation and defense of the Christian religion, the only one considered valiant by the Roman Christian Empire
The present contribution aims to indicate the very first results of a research in progress, within the research, Arts and Professions (collegia, corpora, scholae) in late antiquity, relating to the sc. collegia aquae in the late antiquity. The first sources taken into consideration, especially epigraphical, are read according to the Orestanian method of reading the texts, as far as possible free from current doctrinal conditioning and systematics.
Starting from the second half of the last century, a great emphasis has been put on Shari’a as a central element in the legal system of many Muslim-majority states. The common approach toconsidering Islamic legal systems, however, is still dominated by a monolithical conceptualization of Islamic law, where the description of Shari’a is derived from abstract reasoning on what Shari’a is or ought to be. The aim of this article, after a discussion of the concept of law in Islamic legal thought and an overview of the different interpretations of Islamic law as elaborated within divergent cultures (Arab Republic of Egypt, UAE and Saudi Arabia), is to advance the idea of Islamic Law as an essentially contested concept, and to detach its analysis from any formalism in favour of an acknowledgment of its antagonistic, unfixed and ever-evolving nature.
The contemporary problem of natural resources, especially as regards the “water-question”, involves relevant philosophical-legal and political questions. Different levels of analysis (i.e. historical-legal, theoretical-legal and anthropological) highlight the complex nature of the protection of water as a “legal good” as well as its political corollaries and, in particular, the increasingly more reflexive approach to the idea of “good”. In a wider perspective it is therefore necessary to call into question the pair “subject”-“environment” in order to rethink this relationship and, above all, to elaborate a new model of legal and political responsibility.
Non è passato inosservato alla pubblicistica il clima di peculiare “sintonia” che ha connotato, lo scorso 10 giugno, la visita ufficiale del Santo Padre al Presidente della Repubblica Sergio Mattarella: per averne riscontro, del resto, sarebbe bastato (già solo) dare una scorsa alle trascrizioni dei discorsi tenuti dalle due Autorità, dov’è facilmente rintracciabile una singolare convergenza di toni, registro e – in alcuni passaggi, finanche di - contenuti. Così, riguardo a questi ultimi, ad es., diversi organi di stampa hanno colto la consonante messa in evidenza di un (basilare) dato “fattuale”, qual è la proficuità del sostegno reciproco che Stato e Chiesa seguitano a darsi nel Paese, a fronte di crescenti urgenze/istanze spirituali e materiali, puntualmente esemplificate. In pochi, tuttavia, a tale ultimo riguardo, hanno colto l’ulteriore consonanza dell’esigenza, avvertita da entrambi, di porre in luce la ragione giuridica principe alla base di questo fruttuoso mutuo sostegno, ovverosia l’Accordo di Villa Madama. Quale che sia la ragione della mancata annotazione (forse un automatismo, consono alla c.d. stagione della “post-verità”, di promozione dei dati anzitutto “emozionali”), quel che rileva è l’occasione perduta di registrare, immediatamente dopo, una singolare dissomiglianza tra i due testi. Infatti, mentre Papa Francesco avverte altresì l’esigenza di specificare che l’Accordo richiede espressamente questo mutuo contegno, con un’apposita previsione, i.e. l’art.1, che impegna lo Stato e la Chiesa a collaborare, nel rispetto della “distinzione degli ordini” di cui all’art. 7, I co., Cost., per la «promozione dell’uomo» ed il «bene del Paese»; il Presidente Mattarella, invece, appresso al richiamo fatto al ruolo del Concordato, quale “prezioso quadro di collaborazione”, passa direttamente a rimarcare l’importanza della presenza della Chiesa “a fianco delle Istituzioni” (già in generale nei frangenti più difficili della vita nazionale, e in particolare) in occasione “dell’emergenza del terremoto che ha colpito” nel 2016 il Centro Italia. Uno spunto (questo dell’indicata dissomiglianza tra i testi) che, laddove colto, avrebbe probabilmente condotto a prestare maggiore attenzione non solo ai temi scaturenti dalla puntualizzazione fatta dal Pontefice e dal differente rilievo ad hoc posto dal Presidente Mattarella; ma anche ad ulteriori argomenti-chiave, non esplicitati ma comunque avvertibili– specialmente dagli “addetti ai lavori” – sottesi al tema della collaborazione crescente tra i due Ordini, in vista del “bene comune”.
This paper proposes an explanation concerning relations betwenn law and literature in Balzac’s works. As Adorno argues in his essay on Balzac, “realism” reflects a “loss of reality” and it is linked to the “Real”, a concept which by its very nature is not susceptible of definition. The papers discusses the meaning of Balzac’s concept of law through this opposition between “Reality” and “Real”.
This paper focuses on the evolution of the case law of the European Court of Justice and the decisions of the European Commission in the field of sport with the aim to analyse how the approach of the EU institutions towards sport governing bodies has developed over the years. In the Meca-Medina judgment, the Court, called to assess the compatibility of anti-doping measures with EU provisions on competition, established that any rule adopted by these organisms has to be consistent with EU law, unless the actual restriction is intended to pursue a legitimate objective and is proportionate to it. More recently, it appears that the European Commission, alongside some national courts, has gone even further, expressly recognizing for the first time that also some sport eligibility rules, namely forced arbitration clauses, do not comply with EU competition law.